Therapeutical use of probiotic formulations in clinical practice.Iannitti T, Palmieri B. Clin Nutr. 2010 Jun 22. [Epub ahead of print] BACKGROUND & AIMS: The spreading of gastrointestinal diseases is growing all over the world. Although for some of them an effective therapeutic approach has been found, palliation rather than cure is very frequent due to a partial knowledge of their aethiology and pathogenesis. This review, analyzing the main clinical studies, aims at being a state of the art update of the use of probiotic formulations in daily practice. METHODS: In this review we include all the most significant clinical trials involving the use of probiotic formulations for the treatment of several pathologies. RESULTS: Dysbiosis has been observed in irritable bowel syndrome patients. Probiotics may exert a beneficial effect on Crohn’s disease affected patients who have shown gut microbiota antigens and altered wall permeability. Moreover some probiotic formulations seem to enhance the therapy for Helycobacter Pylori reducing its pathogenic potential. Intestinal ecology imbalance has been also linked to cancer induction, allergy, skin and urogenital diseases. In addition probiotics administration seems to be particularly useful to ease post-operative complications. CONCLUSION: Further future clinical trials, involving large numbers of patients, will be mandatory to achieve definite evidence of the preventive and curative role of probiotics in medical practice.