Dramatic Decline in Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and Peptic Ulcer Disease in an Endoscopy-referral Population. McJunkin B, Sissoko M, Levien J, Upchurch J, Ahmed A. Am J Med. 2011 Mar;124(3):260-4. PURPOSE: To determine if endoscopic Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcer disease prevalence has changed over an 11-year period in a rural region. METHODS: Current endoscopic records were reviewed and compared with similar data obtained over a time period 11 years earlier at the same institution with regard to H. pylori status, endoscopic findings, microscopic pathologic findings, and medication use.RESULTS: There were 251 records reviewed in the current study group (mean age 52.8 years, 59.0% female) and 263 in the previous group (mean age 60.1 years, 56.7% female). H. pylori was positive in 17 (6.8%) in the current study and 173 (65.8%) in the earlier study (P <.0001). Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) was present in 14 (5.6%) in the current study and in 102 (38.8%) in the earlier study (P <.0001). H. pylori was positive in 1 of the 14 PUD patients (7.1%) in the current study and in 78 of 102 (76.5%) in the previous study (P <.0001).CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic H. pylori prevalence in our rural locality has decreased substantially over the past decade and may reflect local overall prevalence trends, although underestimation is likely due to widespread prior noninvasive H. pylori diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopic PUD also has decreased precipitously, possibly related to changes in regional H. pylori characteristics and prolific use of antisecretory agents. Changing geographic trends regarding acid-peptic disease may prompt modification of diagnostic approach and treatment.