Comparative study between endoscopic ultrasonography and positron emission tomography-computed tomography in staging patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.Yen TJ, Chung CS, Wu YW, Yen RF, Cheng MF, Lee JM, Hsu CH, Chang YL, Wang HP. Dis Esophagus. 2011 May 19. [Epub ahead of print] Treatment strategy of esophageal cancer mainly depends on accurate staging. At present, no single ideal staging modality is superior to another in preoperative tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging of patients with esophageal cancer. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) for staging of esophageal cancer. We retrospectively studied 118 consecutive patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent esophagectomy with or without neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) over a near 3-year period between January 2005 and November 2008 at a tertiary hospital in Taiwan. Patients were separated into two groups: without neoadjuvant CRT (group 1, n= 28) and with CRT (group 2, n= 90). Medical records of demographic data and reports of EUS and PET-CT of patients before surgery were reviewed. A database of clinical staging by EUS and PET-CT was compared with one of pathological staging. The accuracies of T staging by EUS in groups 1 and 2 were 85.2% and 34.9%. The accuracies of N staging by EUS in groups 1 and 2 were 55.6% and 39.8%. The accuracies of T and N staging by means of PET-CT scan were 100% and 54.5% in group 1, and were 69.4% and 86.1% in group 2, respectively. In group 2, 38 of 90 patients (42.2%) achieved pathologic complete remission. Among them, two of 34 (5.9%) and 12 of 17 (70.6%) patients were identified as tumor-free by post-CRT EUS and PET-CT, respectively. EUS is useful for initial staging of esophageal cancer. PET-CT is a more reliable modality for monitoring treatment response and restaging. Furthermore, the accuracy of PET-CT with regard to N staging is higher in patients who have undergone CRT than those who have not.