Review article: optimal preparation for surgery in Crohn’s disease.A. Spinelli, M. Allocca, M. Jovani and S. Danese.* Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014
One-third of Crohn’s disease (CD) patients will undergo abdominal surgery within the first 5 years of diagnosis.
To review the available evidence on pre-operative optimisation of CD patients.
The literature regarding psychological support, radiological imaging, abdominal abscess management, nutritional support, thromboembolic prophylaxis and immunosuppression in the perioperative setting was reviewed.
For diagnosis of fistulas, abscesses and stenosis, ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have a high diagnostic accuracy. Under either CT or US guidance, it is possible to perform abscess percutaneous drainage (PD), which, with systemic antibiotic therapy, should be the first-line approach to intra-abdominal abscesses. CD patients with weight loss <10% within the last 3–6 months, body mass index < 18.5 kg/m2 and/or albumin levels <30 g/L, are at an increased risk of post-operative complications. Pre-operative nutritional support should be used in these patients. IBD patients undergoing surgery have a higher risk of venous thromboembolic disease than patients with colorectal cancer, and current guidelines recommend that they should receive prophylaxis with heparin. Whether the use of anti-TNF agents before surgery increases the likelihood of post-operative complications, is the subject of much debate. To date, cumulative evidence from most studies (all retrospective) suggests that there is no such risk increment. Prospective studies are necessary to firmly establish this conclusion.
Preparation for surgery requires close interaction between surgeons, gastroenterologist, radiologists, psychologists and the patient. Correct pre-operative planning of surgical treatment has a major impact on the outcome of such treatment.Leggi l’articolo