Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and COVID-19: A Narrative Review
In early December 2019, the first pneumonia cases of unknown origin were identified in Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei province. The novel pathogen was an enveloped RNA-beta-coronavirus-2 named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with phylogenetic similarity SARS-CoV (1). Initially, the outbreak was reported starting from a zoonotic transmission in live animal and seafood market. It soon became apparent that efficient person-to-person transmission was also occurring (2). The disease has rapidly spread from Wuhan to other areas. By March 11, 2020, the WHO (World Health Organization) declared the pandemic status (3). Globally, up to February 3, 2021, there have been 103.201.340 confirmed cases of COVID-19, including 2.237.636 deaths, reported to COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University.
Considering the rapid spread and high mortality rate of COVID-19, it is necessary to evaluate the possible risk factors affecting the progression of disease in COVID-19 patients (4).
The pandemic has involved millions of persons, and their related chronic conditions could have prognostic and therapeutic implications. One of the essential chronic conditions is, without any doubt, diabetes for its impact on hospitalization, mortality, and economic burden. To date, about half a billion people have diabetes worldwide, and the number will increase by 25% in 2030 and 51% in 2045 (5). The prevalence is estimated to be 9.3% (463 million people), rising to 10.2% by 2030 and 10.9% by 2045 (5). According to various studies, the prevalence of diabetes in COVID-19 patients ranged from 5% to 36%. Considering that diabetes is one of the most important comorbidities in SARS patients, it is necessary to clarify all the aspects concerning the links between the two conditions to offer the scientific and clinical community those elements useful to face this pandemic in the best possible way. An extensive search of SCOPUS, PubMed, and CENTRAL was performed using the following string “(SARS-Cov-2 OR COVID-19) AND (diabetes OR hyperglycemia)”. The hand-searching of principal generalist and infectious disease Journals was carried out as well. This review aimed to summarize the special aspects of COVID-19 infection in people with diabetes and the relation between diabetes and COVID-19 in epidemiology, pathophysiology, prognosis, and therapeutics to provide practical and clinical recommendations approaching diabetic patients during this pandemic.
LEGGI TUTTO https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.609470