AGA Clinical Practice Update on Medical Management of Colonic Diverticulitis: Expert Review
Colonic diverticulitis is a painful gastrointestinal disease that recurs unpredictably and can lead to chronic gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastroenterologists commonly care for patients with this disease. The purpose of this Clinical Practice Update is to provide practical and evidence-based advice for management of diverticulitis. We reviewed systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, and observational studies to develop 14 best practices. In brief, computed tomography is often necessary to make a diagnosis. Rarely, a colon malignancy is misdiagnosed as diverticulitis. Whether patients should have a colonoscopy after an episode of diverticulitis depends on the patient’s history, most recent colonoscopy, and disease severity and course. In patients with a history of diverticulitis and chronic symptoms, alternative diagnoses should be excluded with both imaging and lower endoscopy. Antibiotic treatment can be used selectively rather than routinely in immunocompetent patients with mild acute uncomplicated diverticulitis. Antibiotic treatment is strongly advised in immunocompromised patients. To reduce the risk of recurrence, patients should consume a high-quality diet, have a normal body mass index, be physically active, not smoke, and avoid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use except aspirin prescribed for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. At the same time, patients should understand that genetic factors also contribute to diverticulitis risk. Patients should be educated that the risk of complicated diverticulitis is highest with the first presentation. An elective segmental resection should not be advised based on the number of episodes. Instead, a discussion of elective segmental resection should be personalized to consider severity of disease, patient preferences and values, as well as risks and benefits.