Oral Vancomycin Prophylaxis for Primary and Secondary Prevention of Clostridioides difficile Infection in Patients Treated with Systemic Antibiotic Therapy: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis
Background: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality as well as high propensity of recurrence. Systemic antibiotic therapy (SAT) represents the top inciting factor of CDI, both primary and recurrent (rCDI). Among the many strategies aimed to prevent CDI in high-risk subjects undergoing SAT, oral vancomycin prophylaxis (OVP) appears promising under a cost-effectiveness perspective. Methods: A systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) of studies assessing the efficacy and the safety of OVP to prevent primary CDI and rCDI in persons undergoing SAT was carried out. PubMed and EMBASE were searched until 30 September 2021. The protocol was pre-registered on PROSPERO (CRD42019145543). Results: Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, only one being a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Overall, 929 subjects received OVP and 2011 represented the comparator group (no active prophylaxis). OVP exerted a strong protective effect for CDI occurrence: odds ratio 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.04–0.38. Moderate heterogeneity was observed: I2 54%. This effect was confirmed throughout several subgroup analyses, including prevention of primary CDI versus rCDI. TSA results pointed at the conclusive nature of the evidence. Results were robust to a variety of sensitivity and quantitative bias analyses, although the underlying evidence was deemed as low quality. No differences between the two groups were highlighted regarding the onset of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus infections. Conclusions: OVP appears to be an efficacious option for prevention of CDI in high-risk subjects undergoing SAT. Nevertheless, additional data from RCTs are needed to establish OVP as good clinical practice and define optimal dosage and duration.
LEGGI TUTTO https://www.mdpi.com/2079-6382/11/2/183/htm