Current understanding of the intratumoral microbiome in various tumors
Intratumoral microbes have been revealed to exist in many cancers
Intratumoral microbes affect the host immune and tumor chemotherapy
The characteristics and roles of intratumoral microbes in tumors were summarized
Exploring biomarkers for tumor diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis
It is estimated that in the future, the number of new cancer cases worldwide will exceed the 19.3 million recorded in 2020, and the number of deaths will exceed 10 million. Cancer remains the leading cause of human mortality and lagging socioeconomic development. Intratumoral microbes have been revealed to exist in many cancer types, including pancreatic, colorectal, liver, esophageal, breast, and lung cancers. Intratumoral microorganisms affect not only the host immune system, but also the effectiveness of tumor chemotherapy. This review concentrates on the characteristics and roles of intratumoral microbes in various tumors. In addition, the potential of therapies targeting intratumoral microbes, as well as the main challenges currently delaying these therapies, are explored. Furthermore, we briefly summarize existing technical methods used to characterize intratumoral microbes. We hope to provide ideas for exploring intratumoral microbes as potential biomarkers and targets for tumor diagnosis, treatment, and prognostication.